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Formation of DNA:RNA Hybrid G-Quadruplexes of Two G-Quartet Layers in Transcription: Expansion of the Prevalence and Diversity of G-Quadruplexes in Genomes**

Shan Xiao, Jia-yu Zhang, Jun Wu, Ren-yi Wu, Ye Xia, Ke-wei Zheng, Yu-hua Hao, Xiang Zhou, and Zheng Tan*

 

Abstract: G-quadruplexes are implicated in important cellular processes. Previous studies mostly focused on intramolecular
G-quadruplexes of three or more G-quartets. Those composed of two G-quartets were only shown to form in single-stranded
oligonucleotides. On the basis of electrophoresis, DMS footprinting, fluorescence labeling, and photo-cross-linking, we
detected the formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplexes (HQs) of two G-quartets during the transcription of DNA
duplexes. These HQs have a lifetime on the minute scale and are stabilized by a stabilizing ligand. They are far shorter-lived
than the HQs of three G-quartets, which last for hours. The occurrence of putative formation motifs of such HQs shows
a transcription-dependent strand-biased selection, thus supporting their formation and function in genomes. They are
present in almost all human genes in large amounts. We speculate that the two-G-quartet HQs may be a distinct type of
G-quadruplexes that may play a role in timely responsive processes and for purposes of fine-tuning.

 

 

Formation of DNA:RNA Hybrid G-Quadruplexes of Two G-Quartet Layers in Transcription: Expansion of the Prevalence and Diversity of G-Quadruplexes in Genomes**
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